D'Anville's map of a portion of Chinese Tartary is a beautifully detailed and intricately designed piece of cartographic history.
Drawn by d'Anville in the early 18th century, this map provides a fascinating glimpse into the geography and political landscape of this section of Tartarie Chinoise, or the Chinese Tartary, at the time. It shows the major cities, towns, and geographical features, including rivers, mountains, and lakes.
One of the main features of this map is the inclusion of the Tartar Eluts and the Kalkas, two important ethnic groups in the region. The Tartar Eluts were a group of nomadic Mongol people who lived in the western part of the region, while the Kalkas were a group of Turkic people who lived in the eastern part.
Overall, Jean Baptiste d'Anville's map of Tartarie Chinoise is a stunning piece of cartographic history. It offers a fascinating glimpse into the geography and political landscape of the region in the early 18th century and is a valuable addition to any collection of antique maps.
Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon d’Anville (1697-1782) was one of the foremost French geographers of the eighteenth century. He carried out rigorous research in order to create his maps, which greatly developed the technical proficiency of mapmaking during his lifetime. His style was also simpler and less ornate than that of many of his predecessors. It was widely adopted by his contemporaries and successors.
The son of a tailor, d’Anville showed cartographic prowess from a young age; his first map, of Ancient Greece, was published when he was only fifteen years old. By twenty-two, he was appointed as one of the King’s géographes ordinaire de roi. He tutored the young Louis XV while in the service to the Crown. However, royal appointment did not pay all the bills, so d’Anville also did some work for the Portuguese Crown from 1724. For example, he helped to fill out Dom João V’s library with geographical works and made maps showing Portugal’s African colonies.
D’Anville disapproved of merely copying features from other maps, preferring instead to return to the texts upon which those maps were based to make his own depictions. This led him to embrace blank spaces for unknown areas and to reject names which were not supported by other sources. He also amassed a large personal map library and created a network of sources that included Jesuits in China and savants in Brazil. D’Anville’s historical approach to cartography resulted in magnificently detailed, yet modern and academic, maps. For example, his 1743 map of Italy improved upon all previous maps and included a memoir laying out his research and innovations. The geographer also specialized in ancient historical geography.
In 1773, d’Anville was named premier géographe de roi. In 1780, he ceded his considerable library to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to be used for as a reference library for diplomats. D’Anville is best known for several maps, including his map of China, first published in 1735, and then included with Du Halde’s history of that country (the Hague, 1737). His map of Africa (1749) was used well into the nineteenth century.