Attractive copperplate engraving showing the city of Freiburg on the Breisgau River in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The view illustrates the Martinstor, one of the original city gates (right), the Freiburg Minster cathedral (center), and the Freiburg City Hall (Rathaus).
This view was published by Pierre Aveline, one of the foremost viewmakers of the first part of the 18th century.
The view comes following a period of turbulence in the region. The War of Devolution from 1667 until 1668, in which Louis XIV asserted the Province of Brabant's claims and sent his troops into the Spanish Netherlands, but left Freiburg untouched. Also, in the next Franco-Dutch War from 1672 to 1677, Freiburg was initially spared. However, when peace negotiations had already begun in Nijmegen, marshal François de Créquy did not send his troops into the winter quarters, but surprisingly surpassed the Rhine at the start of November and laid siege on Freiburg. After the first bombardment, the city surrendered on the advice of the city's commander, Schütz. The emperor was unable to oppose a serious resistance on the Upper Rhine, especially as the Turks, in quiet agreement with France, threatened the Holy Roman Empire on its eastern flank. The Further Austrian government was transferred to Waldshut and the university to Constance. The main fortress of the Austrians in the Black Forest was now Villingen and its fortification was further enhanced. Villingen also housed the Breisgau Landtag in the Third Estate.
From 1688 until 1697, Louis XIV ruled during the Nine Years' War, where he attacked Cologne, the Electoral Palatinate, Mainz, Trier and again Philipsburg. An alliance between the Emperor, Spain, Sweden, England, Holland, Savoy, Brandenburg, Saxony and Hanover confronted Louis XIV and ended the conquest. In the Treaty of Ryswick Louis XIV was allowed to keep the Spanish region of Franche-Comté, Lille and areas in Alsace including the Free Imperial City of Strasbourg, but had to give Freiburg back.