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Fascinating map illustrating the Mediterranean of Polybius, which appeared in Gosselin's Rechercehes sur la Geographie systematique et positivedes Anciens, published in Paris in 1798.

Polybius was a second-century B.C. Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work The Histories, which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail. The work describes the rise of the Roman Republic to the status of dominance in the ancient Mediterranean world. It includes his eyewitness account of the Sack of Carthage and Corinth in 146 BC, and the Roman annexation of mainland Greece after the Achaean War.

According to Edward Tufte, Polybius was also a major source for Charles Joseph Minard's figurative map of Hannibal's overland journey into Italy during the Second Punic War.