Rare 1836 edition of Laurie's Fredonia, which has been substantially updated in Texas and the West.
First issued in 1830, the map faithfully incorporates information from all important early explorations, including Lewis & Clark, Stephen Long, and the 1810 Arrowsmith Mexico map.
Fredonia was the named coined by Senator Samuel L. Mitchell and given significant consideration during the early 19th Century, although Laurie probably borrowed it (along with Cabotia for Canada) as a novelty to promote the map. Rumsey notes editions of 1832, 1833, 1834, 1836 and 1849, but doesn't reference the 1839.
The changes in the late editions are of significant note, as Laurie has incorporated important new information from Arrowsmith's map of British North America in 1834, especially in California and Texas. Among the most notable improvements in Texas is the clear delineation of the Colorado & Red River Land Co. lands, which are drawn directly from David Burr's seminal map of Texas.
A note in California has been added, noting that it only rains in the winter, except in Monterrey (drawn from Coulter's paper submitted to the Royal Geographical Society in 1835). There are many other major revisions in Upper California & Oregon.
In 1834, the map added a number of new details in western Michigan, including:
- the "New Townships"
- Kekelamazoo or Kikalemazo River.
- The National Road from Detroit to Ft. Dearborn appes for the first time
- Most of the Rivers flowing west into Lake Michigan are re-named
- The Missionary Station & School in the SW Corner of Michigan is removed
In 1834, a number of improvments are made in Indiana, including:
- Addition of several roads running through Indianapolis
- A large unnamed lake in northwestern Indiana
- La Fayette
- Muncre T. (Muncie)
- Many more towns in the southern half of the state.
Numerous new towns and settlements are also added in the 1834 edition in Southern Illinois and Missouri.
This is the first example of the 1836 map we have seen on the market.
Provenance: Warren Heckrotte Collection: PBA March, 2016.
Richard Holmes Laurie (1777-1858) was the son of mezzotint engraver Robert Laurie, who had taken over Robert Sayer's publishing house with James Whittle in 1794. Richard Holmes Laurie joined in a partnership with Whittle when his father retired in 1812. The name of the firm then switched from Laurie & Whittle to Whittle & Laurie. Whittle died in 1818, leaving Richard Holmes to continue publishing alone as R. H. Laurie.
When the Hydrographic Office opened in 1795, it was tasked with creating and producing all the nautical charts for the Royal Navy so as to wean the Navy off dependence on foreign charts. By the 1820s, private publishers were augmenting HO charts and competing with them, including Richard Holmes Laurie. Richard gave up publishing anything except nautical materials by 1830. He also sold charts to Trinity House, the lighthouse and maritime safety fraternity. He died in 1858.
The firm continued to print under the name R.H. Laurie even after 1858. Later, the firm was managed by Laurie’s draughtsman, Alexander George Findlay, and, later, Daniel and William Kettle.