Rare early map of the coasts of Brazil, Chile and Peru and the upper Rio Plata, copied from the map originally iussed in Olivier Van Noort's Description du Penible Voyage Faict entour de l'Univers ou Globe Terrestre, published by Cornelis Claes in 1602 and a nearly exact copy of Estienne Roger's map of the region, which was later revised and reissued in Constantin Renneville's Recueil des voyages qui ont servi a l'etablissement et aux progres de la Compagnie des Indes Orientales, ... tome second, published in 1703.
Van Noort's map is one earliest, rarest and most detailed regional maps to show in detail the Eastern and Western coastlines of the central part of South America, based upon first hand observations. The map tracks Van Noort's arrival from the east, his first land fall near Rio De Janeiro and his course southward toward Patagonia and then picks up in the west near "Porto Guasco and tracks his journey northward to the area near Quito. The original map depicts the arrival of 4 ships on the east side of the map and then depicition of only 2 ships on the west coast reflects Van Noort's actual casualties during his year long stay in South America (not shown on the Renneville map of this map).
In comparing this map with Renneville's map, the present map includes two spelling differences in the title of the map which appear to be transcription errors from Renneville ("Civita" is lacking an "s" found in the Renneville and Van Noort maps and "mlliaribus" is spelled incorrectly--lacking and "i", and should be "milliaribus"). For this reason, we presume this map is a later copy of the Renneville map. A link to the John Carter Brown copy of the Renneville map can be found here:
Olivier van Noort (1558-1627) was the first Dutchman to circumnavigate the world. Van Noort left Rotterdam on July 2, 1598 with four ships and a plan to attack Spanish possessions in the Pacific and to trade with China and the Spice Islands. He initially landed at Rio Janeiro, Brazil, but was driven back, and along the coast suffered many losses by the attacks of the Indians. He resolved to winter in the deserted island of Santa Clara, then set sail again on June 2, 1599.
On June 29, 1599, he discovered an island near the coast of Patagonia, and stopped there to repair damages. On November 23, 1599, he entered the Strait of Magellan, and landed on the northern coast, where he was attacked by the Indians and again suffered many losses. Soon afterward he anchored among the Penguin islands, and subsequently he discovered the bays of Olivier, Mauritius, and Henry, but could not explore the latter on account of the ice.
On February, 1600, Van Noort and the remaining crew left the Strait of Magellan, and, entering the South sea, sailed along the Chilian and Peruvian coasts, pillaging and burning as he went, and capturing several Spanish ships. The viceroy, Luis Velasco, sent a fleet to capture him, but Noort had already set sail across the Pacific in the direction of the Ladrone Islands. He pillaged the Philippines, visited Java and Borneo, and, sailing round the Cape of Good Hope, arrived back in Rotterdam in August 26, 1601.
Van Noort returned to Rotterdam with only his last ship, the
Mauritius, and 45 of his original crew of 248 men. The venture barely broke even, but was the inspiration for more such expeditions. The United Dutch East India Company (VOC) was formed a few months later. Van Noort's
Description du Penible Voyage Faict entour de l'Univers ou Globe Terrestre, provides his account of the voyage, including a detailed account of the coasts of Brazil, Argentina, the Straits of Magellan, Chile, Peru and the subsequent Trans-Pacific Crossing.