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Rare plan of Rio de Janeiro Harbour from Lescarbot's Histoire de la Nouvelle France.

The map is almost certainly the earliest obtainable plan of the Harbor at Rio de Janeiro. In November 1555 a French ship arrived in Rio with Huguenot settlers under the command of Villegagnon. They set up camp on an island in the bay, as the shore was too hostile, despite it being too small to cultivate. Life was hard, and religious debates became disputes, and Villegagnon renounced Protestantism, leaving the colonists to be crushed by the Portuguese in 1558.