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Scarce 18th-century map of the Ottoman Empire, published by famed German mathematician Leonhard van Euler in Berlin.

Showing administrative boundaries, mountains, rivers, lakes, forest, cities, and principal towns.

Relief shown pictorially.

Condition Description
Engraving on 18th-century laid paper. Prussian censor's ink stamp. Original hand-color. Minor foxing. Two minor spots in blank edges not affecting map image. Minor loss at bottom edge as shown.
Leonhard Euler Biography

Leonhard Euler, born on April 15, 1707, in Basel, Switzerland, stands as a towering figure in the history of mathematics and science. His prolific contributions span a wide range of fields including mathematics, physics, astronomy, and engineering. Recognized for his work in areas such as graph theory, topology, mechanics, fluid dynamics, and optics, Euler's influence is immeasurable, making him one of the greatest mathematicians of the 18th century and indeed, in history.

Euler's early life was steeped in academic and religious influence, with his father serving as a pastor and his mother coming from a line of scholars. His intellectual journey began under the guidance of his father and later, under the renowned mathematician Johann Bernoulli at the University of Basel. Despite his initial aspirations in theology, Euler's fascination with mathematics took precedence, leading to a lifelong dedication to the field.

His professional career was marked by significant periods in Saint Petersburg, Russia, and Berlin, Prussia. In Saint Petersburg, under the auspices of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Euler embarked on extensive scientific endeavors, contributing significantly to the academy's prestige. Despite political upheavals and personal challenges, including a near-fatal fever and deteriorating eyesight, Euler's productivity remained unparalleled. His tenure in Berlin, invited by Frederick the Great, was equally fruitful, yielding numerous works and fostering advancements in various disciplines, including map related projects.

Euler's contributions to mathematics are vast and diverse. He popularized and standardized many mathematical notations, such as the concept of a function and the symbols π, e (Euler's number), and i (the imaginary unit). His works in graph theory emerged from practical problems like the Seven Bridges of Königsberg, laying the foundation for this new field of mathematics. Euler also made groundbreaking contributions to the fields of number theory, calculus, and algebra, influencing countless areas of research and application.

In physics and engineering, Euler's insights transformed understanding and methodologies. His formulation of the Euler–Bernoulli beam equation marked a significant advancement in engineering, while his work in fluid dynamics and optics influenced subsequent theories and practices. Euler's contributions extended to astronomy, where his calculations improved celestial navigation and the understanding of cometary orbits.

Euler's personal life was characterized by his devout faith, simplicity, and resilience in the face of adversity. Despite suffering significant loss of eyesight, he continued his mathematical endeavors with the aid of assistants, demonstrating remarkable adaptability and perseverance. His return to Saint Petersburg in his later years saw continued scientific output until his death on September 18, 1783.

Euler's legacy is enduring, with his extensive body of work influencing countless fields and continuing to inspire future generations. His publications, which include more than 800 articles and numerous books, remain critical resources in mathematics and physics. Leonhard Euler's intellectual legacy is a testament to his unparalleled contribution to science and his enduring impact on the advancement of human knowledge.