Charles-Lucien Bonaparte, Prince di Canino e di Musignano was the eldest son of Napoleon I’s second surviving brother Lucien. His publication of the 4 volume American Ornithology (1825–33), established his scientific reputation. In 1848–49, when he took part in the political agitation for Italian independence against the Austrians, his scientific career experienced a brief hiatus, and he was forced to leave Italy in July 1849. He went to Holland and then to France. His principal works are a general zoological conspectus, Conspectus systematis ornithologiae, mastozoologiae, reptologiae et amphibologiae, ichthyologiae (1850); a work on hummingbirds, Tableau des oiseaux-mouches (1854); and one on extinct birds, Ornithologie fossile (1858).