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Republic of Texas

Detailed map of the United States from Coast to Coast, published by Olney.

The treatment of Oregon Territory shows the ongoing dispute over its northern boundary.  The United States and Great Britain established in 1818 joint claim over the Oregon Territory - the region north of Spanish-controlled Upper California up to the southern boundary of Russia's Alaska Territory at North latitude 54°40'. By the late 1830s, this arrangement was beginning to fall apart. In the 1840s, the expansionist Democrats, including their 1844 presidential candidate, James Polk, claimed the entire region for the United States. Their expansionist desires were expressed by Polk's famous campaign slogan, "Fifty-four Forty or Fight!" The slogan also became a rallying cry for Americans desiring to settle the territory. Following Polk's election, the dispute was resolved by the 1846 Treaty of Oregon, which struck a compromise that fixed the U.S./Canadian boundary at 49º North.

Olney's map also shows the Republic of Texas in one of its largest configurations, extending north to nearly the modern Wyoming border. Austin is identified as the capital with many towns named including Houston, San Antonio de Bexar, Columbus, and many more. To the west is a small region named Santa Fe or New Mexico.

A massive Indian Territory to the north extends up to the Mandan District. The large area of the American Desert is shown mostly in Indian Territory, but extends into the panhandle of Texas. Mexico controls California and the Southwest, which is labeled Mexico, while the Baja is Old California. A large table of distances obscures much of northern California.

The huge Oregon Territory reaches to the Continental Divide and well north into British America as part of the 54°50' or Fight controversy with England. East of Oregon is the large Mandan District that extends to an oversized Iowa at the Missouri River, that in turn extends to Wisconsin at the Mississippi River.  

Condition Description
Original hand-color by state and territory. Toning. Offsetting. Ink stains in the upper-right corner.