Striking example of Braun & Hogenberg's 2-sheet map of Jerusalem, based upon Christian Van Adrichom's plan of ancient Jerusalem and its suburbs at the time of Jesus Christ.
The plan was originally issued in Christian van Adrichom's Theatrum Terrae Sanctae in 1584 in Koln, although in this edition, van Adrichom orients the plan with east at the top, as illustrated here: /gallery/detail/22697
Braun & Hogenberg's 2-sheet plan of Jerusalem, which is oriented with north at the top, contains over 250 sites and scenes of Jerusalem, depicting places described in the Bible, and other historical and traditional sources. There is no chronological order to the scenes, as ancient scenes and characters are displayed alongside European buildings and characters of the sixteenth century. The plan itself is surrounded by many illustrations of biblical and historical interest, and includes a dedication to the Archbishop of Cologne.
Christian Van Adrichom (1533-1585) was a Dutch priest whose scholarly research of the Bible and writings of pilgrims and Josephus made him the acknowledged expert on Holy Land geography. Josephus was a Jewish historian who was employed by the Romans to write about the history of Roman Palestine during the Jewish revolt of 60-70 AD. Many of his works contain accurate geographic details based on his first hand observations. Adrichom was assigned to Cologne during the time it was a thriving center for cartography and atlas publishing.
Georg Braun (1541-1622) was born and died in Cologne. His primary vocation was as Catholic cleric; he spent thirty-seven years as canon and dean at the church St. Maria ad Gradus, in Cologne. Braun was the chief editor of the Civitates orbis terrarum, the greatest book of town views ever published. His job entailed hiring artists, acquiring source material for the maps and views, and writing the text. In this role, he was assisted by Abraham Ortelius. Braun lived into his 80s, and he was the only member of the original team to witness the publication of the sixth volume in 1617.
Frans Hogenberg (ca. 1540-ca. 1590) was a Flemish and German engraver and mapmaker who also painted. He was born in Mechelen, south of Antwerp, the son of wood engraver and etcher Nicolas Hogenberg. Together with his father, brother (Remigius), uncle, and cousins, Frans was one member of a prominent artistic family in the Netherlands.
During the 1550s, Frans worked in Antwerp with the famous mapmaker Abraham Ortelius. There, he engraved the maps for Ortelius’ groundbreaking first atlas, published in Antwerp in 1570, along with Johannes van Deotecum and Ambrosius and Ferdinand Arsenius. It is suspected he engraved the title page as well. Later, Ortelius supported Hogenberg with information for a different project, the Civitates orbis terrarium (edited by Georg Braun, engraved by Hogenberg, published in six volumes, Cologne, 1572-1617). Hogenberg engraved the majority of the work’s 546 prospects and views.
It is possible that Frans spent some time in England while fleeing from religious persecution, but he was living and working in Cologne by 1580. That is the city where he died around 1590. In addition to his maps, he is known for his historical allegories and portraits. His brother, Remigius, also went on to some fame as an engraver, and he died around the same time as his brother.