Rare map of the Siege of Oostende, Belgium, created in the final year of the Siege of Ostend, published at the conclusion of the Spanish siege of the Ostend.
Between 1601 and 1604 the Spanish besieged Ostend. The Dutch, losing 20,000 men during the siege, fared better than the Spanish, who lost as many as 60,000 men due to casualties or disease. While the siege was under way both England and France negotiated peace terms with the Spanish, thereby leaving the Dutch alone in their struggle against the Spanish. The States General ordered Ostend to surrender on September 20, 1604. Prior the the surrender, the Dutch captured Sluys and all the ships in the harbor.
Georg Keller's work is of the utmost rarity. His maps were typically intended as broadsides or to illustrate new pamphlets and therefore the survival rate is very low.