The 653rd Engineer Topographic Battalion was a mapmaking arm of the United States Air Force, stationed in India. The battalion produced maps for a host of military situations, including the major U.S.A.F. activities in and around China. The battalion also produced "walk-out maps" for the Office of Strategic Service. One of the first Japanese targets for the XXth Bomber Command's B-29 raids from China was Nagasaki, a center of Japanese munitions production. The target chart for that raid was reproduced by the 653d in September 1944.