Samuel Bochart (1599-1667) was a French Protestant biblical scholar.
His most noteworthy work was his Geographia Sacra, seu Phaleg et Canaan, cui accedunt variæ dissertationes philologicæ, geographicæ, theologicæ &c, an early attempt to construct the family tree of all languages of the world and at the same time the demographic history of all people of the world, first published in 1646. Based in part on biblical texts, but analyzed with a critical humanist eye and grounded in a thorough study of various ancient sources, it describes (in part 1: "Phaleg") the nations that descended from the sons of Noah and the dispersion of peoples following the confusion of languages at the Tower of Babel, and (in part 2: "Canaan") the languages, voyages and colonies of the Phoenicians, whom he believed had reached the British Isles (Gaelic was long regarded as the "oldest" surviving language).
It was issued both separately and as volume three of Bochart's collected works. The maps, decorated with mythological figures, biblical scenes and other images of antiquity, clarify the diffusion of the languages and peoples.