Bavaria, meticulously produced by Lizars in 1840, offers a detailed and precise representation of this historically rich and geographically varied region. This intricate map highlights towns, roads, rivers, mountains, and lakes, presenting an extensive portrait of Bavaria during the mid-19th century.
The 19th century was transformative for Bavaria. Following the upheavals of the Napoleonic Wars, Bavaria emerged more influential, having gained territories from the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. By 1840, the region had firmly established its borders and was nurturing a budding sense of nationalism while also embracing the onset of industrialization.
Several towns of prominence within Bavaria are accentuated on this map, including Munich, Nuremberg, and Augsburg. Munich, as the capital, stood as the political and cultural nexus of Bavaria. Its grand architecture and burgeoning cultural scene mirrored Bavaria's increasing importance on the continental stage. Nuremberg, with its storied past as a trade center, transitioned into an industrial linchpin during this era. Meanwhile, Augsburg's prominence in the textile industry and its pivotal role in banking rendered it a significant economic hub.
During this period, Bavaria was home to several influential figures who left indelible marks on its cultural and political tapestry. King Ludwig I, who ruled from 1825 to 1848, was especially noteworthy. A formidable patron of the arts, Ludwig sought to elevate Munich as a cultural epicenter. His ambitious architectural endeavors and unwavering support for artists, architects, and poets shaped the region's cultural identity.
The Lizars were a Scottish family of engravers and printers who produced many views and maps. Daniel Lizars Sr. (1754-1812) was the son of a shoemaker, but he apprenticed with Andrew Bell, a printer and engraver. Lizars set up his own printworks near St. Giles Cathedral and took on his own apprentices, including George Bartholomew, whose son John would go on to found the important mapmaking firm later know as John Bartholomew & Son Ltd.
Daniel Sr. had three sons: Daniel Jr., John, and William Home. He also had a daughter, Jane Home. Daniel Jr. (1793-1875), the youngest of the boys, apprenticed in his father’s shop alongside George Bartholomew. When his father died in 1812, Daniel Jr. took over much of the business, expanding it and specializing in maps. The company went bankrupt in 1832, however, and Daniel emigrated to Canada.
John Lizars (1792-1860), the middle son, studied medicine and became Professor of Surgery at the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, as well as senior surgeon at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh.
William Home Lizars (1788-1859), the eldest, also apprenticed in his father’s shop. After learning engraving, William entered the Trustees’ Academy to learn under John Graham. He was a skilled painter and artist. When his father died, and after his Daniel Jr. left, he carried on printing and invented a method of etching that looks like wood engraving.