First Appearance of the "Resitutio View" of Manhattan on a Printed Map
Old color example of state 4 of Hugo Allard's rare map of New England and the Northeastern United States, including the so-called "Resitutio View" of Manhattan.
In 1655, Nicholas Visscher utilized Jan Jansson's map, with its vignettes of animals and Indian life, and added a view of New Amsterdam, showing the Battery and Dutch buildings on the waterfront. An extensive study of the map by Stokes suggests that the view was drawn sometime between 1653 and 1655, prior to the construction of New York's wall. The first edition of the map (1655-56) is extremely rare and known in only a handful of copies, one of which was used to illustrate the boundary dispute between William Penn and Lord Baltimore.
The view of Manhattan was originally drafted by Adriaen van Donck for the Dutch Colonists in New Amsterdam, in order to illustrate the impoverished conditions of the Colony, and a plea for better support and funding. The Dutch would soon thereafter lose the Colony to the English in 1664, but would subsequently recapture the Colony in August 1673.
Following the re-taking of New Amsterdam by the Dutch from the English, the so-called Resitutio View was first substituted for the earlier Visscher view in Hugo Allard's map. This was to celebrate the 'restoration' (Restitutio) of New Amsterdam to Holland, in August 1673, by the fleet under the command of Cornelius Evertsen. Allard's second state was produced shortly after the restitution as the view bears the title Nieuw-Amsterdam onlangs Nieuw Jorck genaemt, en nu hernomen bij de Nederlanders op den 24 Aug 1673. It would not have been produced after November 1674 when the city was returned to England under the Treaty of Breda, in exchange for the colony of Surinam. Evidence from the view itself indicates that it was probably drawn after October 1673. An increase in the size of the city can be seen, with a wall constructed at the waterfront (which later became Wall Street). The area near the wall is not known to have been so built up at this time. The figure on the pedestal is holding a laurel of victory.
For the first time, New Amsterdam is illustrated from the East. The view is intended to show a far more prosperous-looking Dutch Manhattan. The figure on the pedestal is holding a laurel of victory, while the updated glimpse at the southern tip of Manhattan shows a city that has grown significantly, and is a triumphant indication of Dutch pride in its recapture.
The view shows the city from the Brooklyn shore. On the right-hand side is the wall that became Wall Street with its guardhouse and gate. Along the East River quay are three redoubts fortified with cannons. A body of occupying Dutch soldiers can be seen on the quay, and to the left is the canal that cut into the city from the harbor, shown here for the first time in its completed state. At far left is the Reformed Church, and Fort Amsterdam near the Battery, "called James Fort by the English."
There were numerous other changes in addition to the new view. The Dutch fleet under the command of Cornelius Evertson that seized the city is shown off the south coast of Long Island. A key identifying six sites by letter in Manhattan and Long Island has been added to the south of the latter island.
States of the Map
The map was issued in 7 states as recorded by Burden (373), with the first 4 states being scarce to rare on the market.
- State 1 (circa 1662): predates Resititutio View. Earlier Visscher view and title lacking.
- State 2 (1674): Restitutio View added. Allard's name not yet included. Title across top added.
- State 3 (1674): Hugo Allard imprint added at bottom right corner. Letters added to the text in the key below Restitutio view.
- State 4 (circa 1680): Carolus Allard imprint replaces Hugo Allard.
- State 5 (circa 1684): Typis CAROLI ALLARD Amstelodami cum privilegio added to the shield. Additional text added to the title. Phiiladelphia is added. Nieuw Iork al is added to New Amsterdam.
- State 6 (circa 1708): Iochim Ottens imprint replaces Carolus Allard imprint in shield.
- State 7 (circa 1725): Reiner & Iosua Ottens imprint replaces Iochim.
The map is scarce on the market. While the Ottens edition appears with some greater frequency, all Allard editions are far scarcer.
This is the first example of the Allard edition of the map we have offered for sale.
Carel (Carol) Allard (Allardt) (1648–1709) was an engraver and publisher based in Amsterdam. Part of a prominent family of Dutch mapmakers, publishers, and print sellers, his father was engraver and publisher Hugo Allard (1627–1684), who left his business to Carel upon his death. Carel published anything in demand, including maps, topography, ethnography, newsprints, and restrikes of old plates of artistic prints, many of which likely came from his father’s stock. In 1706, Carel gave his copperplates to his son Abraham Allard, before going bankrupt.