Early 17th Century Warsaw
Fine old color example of this important early view of Warsaw, first published by Braun & Hogenberg in Theatri praecipuarum Totius Mundi Urbium Liber Sextus Anno MDCXVII, the rare 6th and final volume of their monumental work of City Views of the World.
The city is shown from the east bank of the Vistula, with a view of bustling river traffic. The narrow bridge over the river was constructed in 1573. Warsaw was founded at the beginning of the 14th century. After the creation of the Polish-Lithuanian Union it became the center of the new state, and the residence of the Polish kings was moved from Cracow to Warsaw in the years 1598-1611. This plate obviously originates from an earlier period: there is nothing to indicate that the city is a royal residence; the 14th-century castle is shown and not the palace, and there is no mention of a royal residence in the commentary. In addition, the 14th-century church of St John (center) is shown with the tower that collapsed is 1602.
The translation of the text on the verso by Braun reads as follows:
The most distinguished city in Warsaw, situated on the River Vistula [...]. It may be well be that at the time when it still belonged to the Dukes of Masovia this city enjoyed greater prosperity than other cities. Nevertheless, after passing to the Polish crown penniless, as one might say, it developed so fast that in a short time one city became two, the new one being built on to the old one, both of them having similar buildings yet different jurisdictions and municipal charters. In both cities the houses and other buildings are built of stone, which is rare in Poland.
The views from volume 6 of the atlas tend to be the rarest.
Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg began the process of creating a comprehensive atlas of the cities of the world in 1572. Their book, Civitates Orbis Terrarum, was originally intended as a companion to Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, the first true atlas.
The great atlas was edited by Georg Braun, with Franz Hogenberg engraving many of the views. When the project was finished, the series would contain over 546 views (sometimes with multiple views on a single plate).
Civitates Orbis Terrarum includes the work of over 100 artists and topographers, perhaps most notable among them was the superlative talent of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600). He provided original drawings of Spanish and Italian towns, as well as reworking and improving the town drawings of other artists. After Joris's death, his son Jakob continued the project.
The Civitates provides an incredibly comprehensive view of urban life in the late 16th century. Many of the views in these volumes are the earliest of their respective towns -- either absolutely, or they are predated only by impossible rarities, as in the case of London. Cities portrayed range from the great capitals of Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas to small Swiss hamlets and other tiny villages. As such, this singular and indispensable source for understanding the early modern world.
The work was published in six volumes, each of which contained approximately sixty plates. The subject matter of each plate varied widely, it could provide a single view of a city, two views of the same city, or views of up to nine different cities. The range of designs is extensive, and it is interesting to compare the variety between views of the same city by two different authors.
Georg Braun (1541-1622) was born and died in Cologne. His primary vocation was as Catholic cleric; he spent thirty-seven years as canon and dean at the church St. Maria ad Gradus, in Cologne. Braun was the chief editor of the Civitates orbis terrarum, the greatest book of town views ever published. His job entailed hiring artists, acquiring source material for the maps and views, and writing the text. In this role, he was assisted by Abraham Ortelius. Braun lived into his 80s, and he was the only member of the original team to witness the publication of the sixth volume in 1617.
Frans Hogenberg (ca. 1540-ca. 1590) was a Flemish and German engraver and mapmaker who also painted. He was born in Mechelen, south of Antwerp, the son of wood engraver and etcher Nicolas Hogenberg. Together with his father, brother (Remigius), uncle, and cousins, Frans was one member of a prominent artistic family in the Netherlands.
During the 1550s, Frans worked in Antwerp with the famous mapmaker Abraham Ortelius. There, he engraved the maps for Ortelius’ groundbreaking first atlas, published in Antwerp in 1570, along with Johannes van Deotecum and Ambrosius and Ferdinand Arsenius. It is suspected he engraved the title page as well. Later, Ortelius supported Hogenberg with information for a different project, the Civitates orbis terrarium (edited by Georg Braun, engraved by Hogenberg, published in six volumes, Cologne, 1572-1617). Hogenberg engraved the majority of the work’s 546 prospects and views.
It is possible that Frans spent some time in England while fleeing from religious persecution, but he was living and working in Cologne by 1580. That is the city where he died around 1590. In addition to his maps, he is known for his historical allegories and portraits. His brother, Remigius, also went on to some fame as an engraver, and he died around the same time as his brother.