Detailed map of Maine and the contiguous parts of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, showing the relative boundary claims of the United States and Great Britain along the Maine-Canada border.
The map extends from Portland and the mouth of the Kennebec River and the Armariscoggin River in the south to the St. Lawrence River in the north and the Connecticut River in the west, highlighting the boundary dispute regarding the US-Canadian border.
The map reflects the lands claimed as part of The Republic of Madawaska, an unrecognized state in the northwest corner of Madawaska County, New Brunswick (also known as the "New Brunswick Panhandle") and adjacent areas of Aroostook County, in the US State of Maine and of Quebec.
The origins of the unorganized republic lie in the Treaty of Paris (1783), which established the border between the United States of America and the British North American colonies. The Madawaska region remained in dispute until 1842.
In 1817, a US settler, John Baker (named on the map and lands shown as #1), arrived in the region. Baker petitioned the state of Maine for inclusion in the state in 1825. On July 4, 1827, Baker and his wife, Sophronia Rice, raised a "US" flag on the west of the junction of the Meruimticook (now Baker Brook) and Saint John Rivers. On August 10, 1827, Baker and others announced their intention to declare the Republic of Madawaska. On that day, the British magistrate confiscated Baker's "American" flag. Baker was arrested by the British on September 25, 1827, for conspiracy and sedition. Ultimately, Baker was fined £25 and jailed for two months, or until the fine was paid.
This set off a diplomatic incident, which led to arbitration by the King of the Netherlands. His decision in 1831 was rejected by Maine. After the undeclared Aroostook War (1838-39), the USA and the United Kingdom signed the Webster-Ashburton Treaty on August 9, 1842, finally settling the boundary question.
The map notes land granted to the following owners:
- John Baker
- F. Bernard
- E. Fanning
- "Man & others"
There are several versions of this map, including one engraved by W.J. Stone in Washington and a lithographic version. The present version would seem to be the earliest and rarest of the three.