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Single-Sheet Adams-Onís Treaty Edition of Brué's Important Map of North America

Fine example of Brué's impressive map of North America, reduced from four-sheets to one, and published only two months after the signing of the Adams-Onís Treaty in February 1819. It is one of the first depictions of the new boundaries of the United States.

The map is a remarkable amalgam of the latest cartographic information, reflecting the detailed effort of its publisher to compile information from the recent expeditions of Lewis and Clark, Zebulon Pike, Wilson Price Hunt, Robert Stuart, and others.

The map featured in Brué’s best-known project, Atlas universal de géographie physique, politique, ancienne et moderne.

The map simultaneously shows areas of intense settlement, marked by the density of text and features, and those that were still being explored, namely the North American West, northern Texas, and the far north, including Labrador, Greenland, and Russian America. The Arctic has unfinished lines between land and sea—Greenland and Baffin Bay are not clearly differentiated, nor is Northern Canada separate from the Arctic Sea—and this area would be the main focus of European and American exploration in the nineteenth century, along with the interior of Africa.

Although not included on this single-sheet edition, a text box on the four-sheet map lists the sources with which Brué compiled the map. They included maps and charts from the Krusenstern expedition (first Russian circumnavigation, 1803-1806) for Russian America, from the official account of the Vancouver expeditions for the Pacific Northwest, from the accounts of Zebulon Pike and Alexander von Humboldt for the Spanish possessions, the Spanish Hydrographic Office and Thomas Jefferys for the Antilles; by Samuel Holland, the Arrowsmiths, and many others for the United States; from the English edition of the Lewis and Clark expedition for the Louisiana Territory; by Alexander Dalrymple, Samuel Hearn, Alexander Mackenzie, and others for British Canada; and by the Depót de la Marine, Etienne de Herbin de Halle, and Médéric Louis Élie Moreau de Saint-Méry for Saint Domingue.  

The Adams-Onís Treaty

The Louisiana Purchase of 1803 created friction points between the United States and Spain, especially in Florida and Texas. John Quincy Adams, US Secretary of State to President James Monroe, and Luis de Onís y González-Vara, Spain’s diplomatic envoy and minister plenipotentiary, represented their countries in negotiations to resolve these issues.

In 1817-18, General Andrew Jackson led his troops into northeastern Florida, seizing control of the area as part of a campaign against the Seminole Indians. Adams used the presence of the US military to bargain for the cession of Florida to the US; the States had to pay legal claims of American citizens against Spain up to five million dollars. Spain also gave up their claims to the Oregon Territory. In return, Spain was able to shore up the eastern border of Nueva España in Texas against American settlers, with a border at the Sabine River.

The border was drawn along the Sabine, Red, and Arkansas Rivers before hitting the 42nd parallel. Several of these rivers remained only partially or un-charted, leaving the border in dispute as to its precise location.

The treaty was signed on February 22, 1819. However, the treaty was not ratified until precisely two years later, on February 22, 1821. Then, it was only in force for 183 days. On August 24, 1821, Spain recognized the independence of Mexico under the Treaty of Córdoba. The Adams-Onís border then became the border between Mexico and the US, as recognized by the Treaty of Limits signed in 1828 and authorized in 1832.

The Lewis and Clark expedition

After President Thomas Jefferson completed the Louisiana Purchase, he wanted an expedition to explore and survey the vast lands that had come under the control of the United States. He chose Meriwether Lewis, an Army captain and Jefferson’s personal secretary, to lead the expedition. Lewis chose William Clark to lead with him. Clark was a land owner in Kentucky and an Army officer, where he had served with Lewis.

Both men studied extensively before setting out, reading up on medicine, botany, astronomy, and zoology. They read every available map and journal detailing the area, from Spanish, French, and British sources. Lewis gathered munitions at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia, and then boarded a custom-made keelboat, which he sailed down the Ohio River to Clarksville, Indiana, where he joined Clark. There, Clark boarded the boat, taking it up the Mississippi, while Lewis took to horseback to gather more supplies, including maps and surveying equipment.

Meanwhile, Clark recruited the men who would travel with them, members of the Corps of Volunteers for Northwest Discovery, at Fort DuBois, Missouri. The final group consisted of Lewis, Clark, Clark’s enslaved man, York, 27 soldiers, a French-Indian interpreter, and a boat crew. They set out on May 14, 1804, picking up Lewis in St. Charles, Missouri and continuing up the Missouri River. On August 20, Sergeant Charles Floyd died of stomach infection; miraculously, he was the only Corps member to die on the entire journey.

The Corps traveled through Iowa and into South Dakota. In November, they arrived near what is today Washburn, North Dakota, where they set up their winter camp. They built a structure they called Fort Mandan. Nearby were the Mandan and Minitari Indians, just some of the over fifty tribes who encountered Lewis and Clark on their journey. Some groups, like the Teton Sioux, were suspicious of the soldiers, but there was relatively little violence during encounters as compared to other similar expeditions.

At Fort Mandan, Sacagawea, a Shoshone woman, met Lewis and Clark. She was pregnant and with her husband, a French-Canadian fur trapper, Toussaint Charbonneau. Although the expedition hired Charbonneasu as interpreter, it would be Sacagawea who would prove integral to the success of the venture. Sacagawea gave birth in February, 1805; the Corps set out, with baby Jean Baptiste in tow, in early April.

The Corps traveled across Montana, crossing the Continental Divide. They purchased horses from the Shoshone, thanks to Sacagawea. There, she also reunited with her brother, Cameahwait, whom she had not seen since she had been kidnapped by the Hidatsa people when she was 12; she was later sold to Charbonneau.

The horses proved useful as the Corps crawled over the Lolo Trail through the Bitterroot Mountains with Shoshone guides. Cold and exhausted, the men were revived by the Nez Perce Indians, who they met near the Clearwater River, in what is today Idaho. The final leg of their journey west was on the water; they rafted down the Clearwater to the Snake River, and then to the mighty Columbia.

They reached the Pacific Ocean in November of 1805. It was time for another winter camp, which they set up near what is today Astoria, Oregon. They called their shelter Fort Clatsop, moving in on Christmas Day. It was a damp and dismal winter, and practically the entire Corps had stomach sicknesses.

On March 23, 1806, the Lewis and Clark expedition headed east. They returned to the Nez Perce, where they had left their horses, then crossed the mountains. At the Lolo Pass, the leaders split their troops. Lewis headed to the Great Falls of the Missouri River; Clark and Sacagawea to the Yellowstone River. Clark named a large rock formation near the river Pompey’s Pillar; Pompey was the nickname for Sacagawea’s son.

Lewis had a less monumental time; they got into an altercation with Blackfeet warriors, killing two of them. This was the only episode that resulted in indigenous death during the expedition. Lewis’ woes continued, as he was shot in the buttocks soon thereafter.

The men and their groups reunited on August 12, 1806. They bid farewell to Sacagawea and her family at the Mandan villages. Then, they sailed down the Missouri River to St. Louis, where they arrived on September 23.

From Missouri, the leaders traveled to Washington D. C. to report on their findings. They had traversed over 8,000 miles, made a library of maps and accounts (nearly 5,000 pages of journals), returned 120 animal specimens and 200 botanical specimens, and did so with comparatively little violence.

Lewis became the Governor of the Louisiana Territory, while Clark was named Brigadier General of Militia for the Louisiana Territory and a federal Indian Agent. Unfortunately, Lewis became an alcoholic and died of gunshot wounds in 1809. Sacagawea died a few years later; Clark became the guardian of her children. Clark himself lived a successful life and died in 1838.

The publications of the Lewis and Clark expedition

The expedition was a huge success, widely reported upon in the papers of the time. Accounts of the journey were published even before they returned, however. Lewis’ and Clark’s letters were featured in periodicals from Boston to Louisville. Matthew Carey included a paragraph about the expedition in the 1806 edition of John Newbery’s Compendious History of the World (first published in London in 1763). Having received a cache of documents, Jefferson wrote a report to Congress in February 1806; portions of this were printed as broadsides and newspaper articles and then reprinted in whole by Hopkins and Seymour of New York, as well as in London and Natchez, Mississippi.

The first complete account of the expedition came out of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Zadok Cramer saw an opportunity; he purchased the journal of Patrick Gass, a Corps member, and flew the journal through printing. Cramer and his partner, David M’Keehan, released the book less than a year after the return of the Corps; they sold their publication rights to J. Budd (London) and Matthew Carey (Philadelphia); the latter published three illustrated editions of the journal.

In 1809, the pseudonymous Hubbard Lester penned a fictitious account that borrowed liberally from other sources. His work included a bogus map riddled with errors. Over the next fifty years, at least eight fictitious or counterfeit Lewis and Clark accounts were offered to readers. The last one appeared in 1846, showing that even these fraudulent accounts found an audience.

More discerning readers had to wait until 1814 for the authorized expedition account. Nicholas Biddle and Paul Allen compiled an abridged version of Lewis and Clark’s journals into a two-volume narrative. Lewis was supposed to have written the account, but his decline and death in 1809 made this impossible. The account also included a detailed map of the American West by Clark, which would remain the gold standard for the northwestern United States until the 1830s.

However, many critics found the lack of a volume dedicated to the botanical and naturalist findings a major detraction of the work. It seems that many Americans already knew the story of the expedition; they wanted more figures, images, and data. This is supported by the fact that most surviving examples of the Biddle/Allen account lack the map; there is some evidence that travelers used it for trans-Mississippi journeys. The Biddle/Allen narrative was printed in many languages worldwide, but it was only reprinted in the US once, in 1842.

The two western expeditions of Zebulon Pike

Pike was an American Army officer, as was his father. He grew up on Army outposts in Ohio and Illinois, then the western edge of the growing United States. In 1799, he was commissioned a second lieutenant and was promoted to first lieutenant in the same year.

Pike’s entire career, like his childhood, was focused on the American frontier. In 1805, he was asked to find the source of the Mississippi River, in the north of the Louisiana Territory that was now the possession of the United States. He was also supposed to encourage any French or Canadian traders and trappers on US land to follow US law.

Pike and his men travelled upstream, reaching the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers on September 21. There he negotiated a purchase of land from local Dakota bands; the site would become Fort Snelling. They wintered at the mouth of the Swan River, near present-day Little Falls, waiting for the river to freeze. They continued on the ice in early December, visiting British North West Company fur posts, finishing at Leech Lake outpost. After raising the American flag over that station, they retraced their steps, returning to St. Louis on April 20, 1806.

After this successful venture into the US’ new land, Pike was almost immediately told to set out again. Having followed the Mississippi, he was now to seek out the headwaters of the Arkansas and Red Rivers, as well as to assess natural resources and establish friendly relations with local tribes. He left on July 15, 1806. They made their way across what is now Texas and the southern Great Plains to the Rockies. By November, he and his men were trying to summit Pike’s Peak, the over 14,000-foot mountain named for Pike.

As they moved south, the Spanish captured Pike’s party, as they had crossed into Spanish territory. The Americans were taken to Santa Fe and then to Chihuahua. While there, Pike stayed with Juan Pedro Walker, who confiscated his maps and journal to translate them. However, Pike also had access to Spanish maps while there. When released, he left with a better cartographic understanding of the Southwest. Pike and most of his men were deposited on the Louisiana border on July 1, 1807.

Pike might have been released by the Spanish, but his journals were not. They were not returned to the United States until the twentieth century. Instead, Pike wrote an account from memory, which was published in 1810. It was a popular read and was translated into Dutch, French, and German. In the book, Pike reflected on Mexican discontent with Spain and trade between New Mexico and Chihuahua (the Santa Fe Trail).

After these expeditions, Pike was quickly promoted during the War of 1812. He was made brigadier general in March 1813. A little over a month later, he was killed during an attack on York (Toronto).

Reference
Wheat, 321; https://www.lewis-clark.org/article/3028. KAP
Adrien-Hubert Brué Biography

Andre Hubert Brué was a French geographer and cartographer. Born in Paris, he served in the French Navy, joining the Baudin expedition to the Pacific (1800-1804). After his sea service, Brué applied his navigation and charting skills to creating finely-crafted maps, which were renowned for their crisp engraving and accuracy. He drew directly on the copper of the plate, creating what he called encyprotypes. He is best known for the Atlas universal de géographie physique, politique, ancienne et moderne.