British Naval Attack in Alabama During the War of 1812
Scarce map showing the attack of Fort Bowyer at the mouth of the Mobile River.
A manuscript annotation corrects the dating error in the title -- the date of the battle was actually September 1814.
Fort Bowyer was a short-lived earthen and stockade fortification erected by the US Army in 1813 at Mobile Point, near the mouth of Mobile Bay, Mississippi Territory. The British twice attacked the fort during the War of 1812. The American forces in Fort Bowyer, commanded by William Lawrence, consisted of 160 infantry, and about 10 cannon.
The first attack was a failed effort, which took place in September 1814. In mid-September, 1814. Captain William Percy of the Royal Navy decided to attack the fort in preparation for an assault on Mobile.
Failing to take Mobile Point, the British changed their strategy and attacked New Orleans. The second attack, following the British defeat at the Battle of New Orleans, was successful. However, it took place in February 1815, after the Treaty of Ghent had been signed but before the news had reached that part of America. The battle began with the Americans repulsing the British land attack. On September, 15, Percy crossed the bar with 4 ships. After two hours of fruitless bombardment, Percy's ship ran aground and lay helpless under the fire from the fort. The remaining ships anchored for the night some one and half miles from the fort.
Between 1819 and 1834 the United States built a new masonry fortification, Fort Morgan, on the site of Fort Bowyer.