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Finely detailed hydrographical map of Mexico City and environs, printed by Litografia de Salazar, at Calle de Tlapaleros No. 19, in Mexico, City.

The map provides the details of an important early hydrographical survey of the Valley of Mexico.  The map extends from Huehuetoca in the north to Milpa Alta and Tlamanalco in the south.  Dozens of towns and smaller settlements are shown, including Tepozotlán, Cuautitlán, Tultepec, and Zumpango

For Lake Xaltocan, a note is included that  "... This lake is dried almost completely every year at the station itself ... " Two islands are identified in Lake Xaltocan, each with a local community: Xaltocan and Tonanitlaa.  The city of Texcoco is shown, with an area of ​​25 blocks. In the west, Mexico City is located, with a 10 x 22 street grid.

Further out, the town of Tacubaya is shown, 5 blocks wide and 6 blocks high, and a large group of towns: Tacuba, Popotla, Los Morales, Molino del Rey, Chapultepec, Mixcoac, Iztacalco, etc. Continuing south, there are the Chinampas, Xochimilco, San Angel, Portales, Tlacoquemecatl, Iztapalapa, Churubusco, Coyoacán, etc.

At its south the valley ends with Tlalpan, which appears with an area of ​​24 blocks, and the lake of Xochimilco, with a note: "... This lake is covered with floating vegetation, being able to travel only the canals ...".  Lake Chalco includes a note: "... this lake is also covered with vegetation like that of Xochimilco ...". It has two islands, one of them inhabited: Xico and San Juan Nico and the other, Tlapacoya. Nearby is Iztapaluca and from there the road to Puebla. On its banks the towns of Ayotla and Chalco.

On the southwest side of the map, from the Cerro de la Magdalena, two aqueducts are shown, which converge and reach Mexico City, passing through Molino del Rey and Chapultepec.

 Two of the authors of this monumental work are part of the honor roll of Mexican scientists of the nineteenth century: Francisco Díaz Covarrubias (1833 - 1889), engineer, geographer, astronomer, scientist and diplomat. Diaz distinguished himself for his activities for the geographical study of Mexican territory; in 1856 he was assigned to carry out the survey of the Geographic and Topographic Charter of the Valley of Mexico, which was published in 1863 - 1864. He is known for his contributions to public education and his trip to Japan in 1874, to observe the Transit of Venus. He was also one of the founders of the National Preparatory School. His remains are found in the Rotunda of Illustrious Men.

Ramón Almaraz: notable surveyor and cartographer engineer, among others, conducted an important archaeological survey an report during this same time period.


The map is extremely rare.  OCLC locates copies in 3 institutions: Harvard University and University of Wisconsin, and the Bibliotheque National de France.  In Mexico there is a fourth copy, in the Library of the National Institute of Anthropology and History.  

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