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Trade and Industry Map of European Russia

Fine large format map, coded to illustrate the trade and industry in Russia at a time when the Russia's future was very much in flux and the Industrial Revolution, which began to exert a significant influence in Russia, was meanwhile creating forces that would finally overthrow the tsar.

An entry in the American Geographical Society Bulletin in 1914 describes Petermann's map and the original as follows:

[Petermann's map is drawn from a map entitled] Commercial and Industrial Map of European Russia. Based on statistical data for 1900 with regard to the commercial and industrial movement and on many other geographical and economic-statistical sources. Compiled by B. P. Semenov-Tian Shanski. 1:1,680,000. 71° -38° N.; 16° -68° E. 98 colors. With 10 insets showing certain regions in greater detail, 16 insets showing the value of the trades and industries of Russia and 2 insets showing its division into commercial and industrial regions, as follows: I (all on the scale of 1:420,000, except 9 and 10, and in various colors): (1) [St. Petersburg and vicinity.] (2) [Polish-Silesian-Galician coal region.] (3) [Lodz and vicinity.] (4) [Konskie, Poland, and vicinity.] (5) [Warsaw and vicinity.] (6) [Kutno, Poland, and vicinity.] (7) [Ostrovietz, Poland, and vicinity.] (8) [Region to the west of Warsaw.] (9) [Donez coal and iron region.] [1:630,000]. (10) [Moscow industrial region.] [1:630,000.] II: [Sixteen inset maps of Russia, 1:23,000,000, in various colors, with the general title:] Intensity of Separate Trade and Industrial Types: Annual Movement in Roubles per Capita [divided into two categories, (a) the trade in, and (b) the manufacture of the articles mentioned, viz.:] (a) (1) general intensity of trade, (2) agricultural vegetational products, (3) products of stock-raising, of fisheries and hunting, (4) forest materials and lumber products, (5) mineral products and metal manufactures, (6) manufactures and fancy goods, (7) wine and spirits, (8) miscellaneous; (b) (1) general intensity of manufacturing, (2) food products, (3) animal products not used for food, (4) lumber and wood products, (5) useful minerals and products thereof, (6) textile products, (7) chemical products, (8) various mechanical trades, handicrafts and workmen's associations. III. (1) General Outline of Commercial and Industrial Regions. [1:2,300,000]. 13 colors. (2) General Outline of the Groups and Sub-Groups of the Regions. [1:11,000,000]. — In 9 sheets. Supplement to the work ''Commerce and Industry of European Russia in 1900 by Regions," 13 vols., Ministry of Commerce and Industry, St. Petersburg, 1903-1911. [In Russian.]

A highly important map which represents with great minuteness the economic regions of European Russia. The country is divided into no less than 1,065 economic units, based on the nature and value of their trade and manufactures. These 1,065 units are grouped together into 75 economic provinces (shown on inset ITI2), these again into 12 major economic regions (inset IIIi). These 12 regions are: (1) Northern Forest Region, (2) Northwestern Agricultural Region, (3) Moscow Industrial Region, (4) Central Cereal Region, (5) Ural Region, (6) Southeastern Stock Raising and Fishery Region, (7) Cis-Caucasian Region, (8) Southern Cereal Region, (9) Southern Mining Region, (10) Southwestern Agricultural and Industrial Region, (11) Polesie Region, (12) Vistula Region (i. e. Poland). Each of the 1,065 units is shown in a distinct color which expresses both the type and the value of its economic activities. Six types each are established for trade and manufacturing: these correspond respectively to the titles of the inset maps listed above under II and numbered (a) 2-7 and (b) 2-7. Each type is further subdivided into seven grades according to the value of the products in roubles per capita. All of these differentiations—a total of 84—are brought out clearly by the color scheme, each type being represented by a suggestive color group (as green for forest products) which is composed of tints of varying strength to express the value grades. Identification is facilitated by assigning a letter to each tint. In addition, towns are similarly differentiated, by means of 8 kinds of circles, according to the value of their output, and the nature of their products is shown by the corresponding coloring of the sectors into which these circles are proportionately divided. The nature and value, in 1900, of the economic activities of any district or town of Russia may thus be seen at a glance. For instance, the region about Archangelsk on the White Sea is seen mainly to have produced lumber to the value of 100-500 roubles per inhabitant, while the town itself had a trade valued at 5,000,000-10,000,000 roubles, divided into four equal parts, viz., in lumber, agricultural products, fisheries and alcoholic beverages. The map is a veritable mine of information and is an admirable example of the synoptical value of the graphical (i. e., in geographical terms, cartographical) method of presentation, for it contains the greater part of the material laid down in the 13 volumes which it accompanies. Its editorship is a guarantee of geographical treatment throughout: this is very evident in the establishment of the economic regions themselves, which are not based on administrative units but on the natural limits of the economic activities which they represent (cf. Diario N. 3: X Congresso Geografico Internationale, Rome [session of March 28, 1913], p. 4, and Vol. 13 (General Part) of the work cited above, which is accompanied by a map, 1:6,300,000, showing the subdivision into economic districts down to each of the 1,065 units, on which the units are, however, not very accurately reduced from the original map.)]

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[Petermann's map is ] A reduction of the important map listed immediately above. The 84 differentiations in type and value of trade on the original map have been reduced to 27, however (3 value grades for each of the 9 types shown), and the number of economic units shown is conditioned by this reduction in the range of expression and is therefore considerably simplified. The names of the 12 regions and the 75 provinces into which they fall are given at the bottom of the map. The color scheme of the original has, in general, been followed. Some slips are noticeable in the color printing: thus the economic units north of Wyasniki (to use the German transliteration) in region 21 and east of Sergatsch in region 30 are shown in green stippling, for which there is no equivalent in the color key, while various units are practically left without color, probably through the defaulting of certain plates, as the units east of Suwalki (region 15), north of Brest Litowsk (region 73), south of Kaluga (region 28), and south of Tschistopol (region 37); while the lakes in the westernmost division of region 2 are colored instead of being left white. These may seem minute criticisms, and they would be so did one not have reason to expect high standards in color printing from the firm of Justus Perthes. These are minor considerations, however, as compared with the debt the western geographical world owes to the editor of Petermanns Milteilungen for making more readily accessible to it this magnum opus in the domain of Russian economic geography.

Bulletin (formerly Journal) of the American Geographical Society ..., Volume 46 (1913) pp 235-237.

Augustus Herman Petermann Biography

August Heinrich Petermann (1822-1878) is a renowned German cartographer of the nineteenth century. Petermann studied cartography at the Geographical Art-School in Potsdam before traveling to Edinburgh to work with Dr. A. Keith Johnston on an English edition of Berghaus’ Physical Atlas. Two years later he moved to London, where he made maps and advised exploratory expeditions as they set off to explore the interior of Africa and the Arctic.

In 1854, Petermann returned to Germany to be Director of the Geographical Institute of Justus Perthes in Gotha. There, he was the editor of the Geographische Mittheilungen and Stieler’s Handatlas. The Royal Geographical Society of London awarded him their Gold Medal in 1860. He continued his interest in exploration in Germany, fundraising for the German Exploring Expeditions of 1868 and 1869-70, which sought an open Arctic sea. Tragically, he committed suicide in 1878.