Important Early Gadsden Purchase Map
Bartlett's map is one of the most important early maps of the Transmississippi West to show the Gadsden Purchase.
Following the conclusion of the War with Mexico, A.B. Gray was given the task of establishing the boundary between the US and Mexico. In part due the American' delegation to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo having relied on negotiations upon John Disturnell's map of 1847 map of Mexico, which includes a significant error in the location of "El Paso," a critical region of Arizona, which was coveted for the southern transcontinental railroad route, was retained by Mexico. In order to correct this problem, the Gadsden Purchase was negotiated.
Several important maps were thereafter prepared over a series of several years by John Bartlett, under the direction of W.H. Emory. This map was the final map in the series, which was privately printed by J.H. Colton in Bartlett's Personal Narrative of explorations and incidents in Texas, New Mexico, California, Sonoar and Chihuahua… published by Appleton in 1854.
Wheat states that Bartlett's map is an important Western map and describes it as excellent. It is one of the first maps to show Jackson Lake east of the Tetons. Wheat called the depiction of the California mining regions credible, but a bit too far east. It includes Indian tribal information, elevations, early routes, notes on the Gadsden Purchase, forts, rivers and a host of other detailed and current information.
Wheat also notes that the draftsman of the map had Simpson's map of the Navajo campaign to work with, an early appearance of this information.
G. W. & C. B. Colton was a prominent family firm of mapmakers who were leaders in the American map trade in the nineteenth century. Its founder, Joseph Hutchins Colton (1800-1893), was a Massachusetts native. Colton did not start in the map trade; rather, he worked in a general store from 1816 to 1829 and then as a night clerk at the United States Post Office in Hartford, Connecticut. By 1830, he was in New York City, where he set up his publishing business a year later.
The first printed item with his imprint is dated 1833, a reprint of S. Stiles & Company’s edition of David Burr’s map of the state of New York. He also printed John Disturnell’s map of New York City in 1833. Colton’s next cartographic venture was in 1835, when he acquired the rights to John Farmer’s seminal maps of Michigan and Wisconsin. Another early and important Colton work is his Topographical Map of the City and County of New York and the Adjacent Country (1836). In 1839, Colton began issuing the Western Tourist and Emigrant’s Guide, which was originally issued by J. Calvin Smith.
During this first decade, Colton did not have a resident map engraver; he relied upon copyrights purchased from other map makers, most often S. Stiles & Company, and later Stiles, Sherman & Smith. Smith was a charter member of the American Geographical and Statistical Society, as was John Disturnell. This connection would bear fruit for Colton during the early period in his career, helping him to acquire the rights to several important maps. By 1850, the Colton firm was one of the primary publishers of guidebooks and immigrant and railroad maps, known for the high-quality steel plate engravings with decorative borders and hand watercolors.
In 1846, Colton published Colton’s Map of the United States of America, British Possessions . . . his first venture into the wall map business. This work would be issued until 1884 and was the first of several successful wall maps issued by the firm, including collaborative works with D.G. Johnson. From the 1840s to 1855, the firm focused on the production of railroad maps. Later, it published a number of Civil War maps.
In 1855, Colton finally issued his first atlas, Colton’s Atlas of the World, issued in two volumes in 1855 and 1856. In 1857 the work was reduced to a single volume under the title of Colton’s General Atlas, which was published in largely the same format until 1888. It is in this work that George Woolworth (G. W.) Colton’s name appears for the first time.
Born in 1827 and lacking formal training as a mapmaker, G. W. joined his father’s business and would later help it to thrive. His brother Charles B. (C. B.) Colton would also join the firm. Beginning in 1859, the General Atlas gives credit to Johnson & Browning, a credit which disappears after 1860, when Johnson & Browning launched their own atlas venture, Johnson’s New Illustrated (Steel Plate) Family Atlas, which bears Colton’s name as the publisher in the 1860 and 1861 editions.
J.H. Colton also published a number of smaller atlases and school geographies, including his Atlas of America (1854-56), his Illustrated Cabinet Atlas (1859), Colton’s Condensed Cabinet Atlas of Descriptive Geography (1864) and Colton’s Quarto Atlas of the World (1865). From 1850 to the early 1890s, the firm also published several school atlases and pocket maps. The firm continued until the late 1890s, when it merged with a competitor and then ceased to trade under the name Colton.