Contemplating The Creation of the State of Campeche
Important early map of the Yucatan Peninsula, including the States of Yucatan and Campeche. Published in Mexico City in 1861.
The map provides a remarkably detailed picture of the Peninsula, including roads, towns, and topoographical details. The map also identifies Haciendas, Ruines, Cenotes and other details.
The map was prepared by the Mexican Government in connection with a report on the advisability, usefulness and necessity of constitutionally creating the Territory of Campeche.
Because of its geographical remoteness from the center of New Spain, Yucatán was not militarily affected by the Mexican War of Independence, but the war influenced the enlightened people of Yucatán. On September 15, 1821, in the Hall of Councils of the City of Mérida, Yucatán declaree its independence from Spain. Shortly thereafter, Governor Juan María Echeverri sent two representatives to negotiate the incorporation of Yucatán to the Mexican Empire. The incorporation to the Mexican Empire was on November 2, 1821.
The Mexican Empire was quickly overthrown under the Plan of Casa Mata, and the provinces of the empire became independent states. The first Republic of Yucatán, declared on May 29, 1823, joined the Federal Republic of the United Mexican States as the Federated Republic of Yucatán on December 23, 1823. The second Republic of Yucatán emerged when the federal pact signed by Yucatán and endorsed in the Constitution of Yucatán of 1825 was broken by the centralist government of Mexico in 1835.
In 1841 the state of Tabasco decreed its separation from Mexico and Miguel Barbachano, then governor of Yucatán, sent a commission headed by Justo Sierra O'Reilly to meet with Tabasco authorities to propose the creation of an independent federal republic from Mexico formed by the two states. The idea failed when Tabasco rejoined Mexico in 1842. On August 22, 1846, Mexican interim president José Mariano Salas restored the 1824 constitution and the federalism. Two years later, during the government of president José Joaquín de Herrera, Miguel Barbachano ordered the reinstatement of Yucatán to Mexico under the Constitution of Yucatán of 1825. A decisive factor for the reinstatement was the Caste War, which forced Yucatán to seek outside help. In 1852, the Territory of Campeche was created. On April 29, 1863, during the government of Benito Juárez, Campeche gained its current status as an independent state.