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Detailed map of Bolivia and a portion of Brazil, illustrating the route of Francis de Laporte de Castelnau's  travels in South America between 1844 and 1846.

The route of the map across the Castelnau's expedition across the continent is illustratred in red.

François Louis Nompar de Caumont La Force, comte de Castelnau, was born in London and studied natural history in Paris. From 1837 to 1841 he led a scientific expedition to Canada, where he studied the fauna of the Canadian lakes and the political systems of Upper and Lower Canada (roughly corresponding to the modern provinces of Ontario and Quebec) and of the United States.

Between 1843 to 1847, on behalf of the French Government, Castelnau, two botanists and a taxidermist embarked on an expedition to cross South America from Rio de Janeiro to Lima, following the watershed between the Amazon and La Plata river systems, and thence to Pará, collecting specimens.