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Detailed map of the Southern Caspian Sea, showing the area north of Tehran.

The map extends from the Aras River and the area around Neftchala in Azerbaijan to the what looks to be southern Azerbaijan.

Adam Olearius (Adam Oelschlaeger) participated in an embassy to Moscow and later to Persia, in an attempt to secure for Frederick III a favorable position at the end of the Silk Route. He traveled extensively in Russia and Persia, meeting with the Czar and the Shah. The party's descent of the Volga resulted in the first detailed mapping of the river based on Olearius' account of the expedition. The map was published in 1647 and represents one of the most important early accounts of European travels in Russia.

Olearius' mission as ambassador was to secure permission to use the Volga as a trade route to Persia. His accurate charting of the route was of vital importance.

Olearius observed that:

Since in my opinion this river is one of the largest, longest and most remarkable in the world, I have explored it assiduously with the help of an expert Dutch navigator, Cornelius Clausen, and some Russian pilots; and reduced it to a map with the aid of compass, showing not only its course, its bends, angles and shores, but also its depths so as to indicate where one can navigate freely and safely, its sand banks, islands in it, and countries along its shores; and I measured the distances in miles and even in versts.