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Important early plan of Fort Harmar and one of the earliest printed versions of Captain Jonathan Hart's drawings of the Ancient Mounds or Marietta Earthworks.

Marietta Earthworks

The Marietta Earthworks is an archaeological site located at the confluence of the Muskingum and Ohio Rivers in Washington County, Ohio, United States. Most of this Hopewellian complex of earthworks is now covered by the modern city of Marietta. Archaeologists have dated the ceremonial site's construction to approximately 100 BCE to 500 CE.

The site was first investigated in 1786 by Captain Jonathan Hart, the commander of Fort Harmar. Hart drew a plan of the site that appeared in the May 1787 issue of Columbian Magazine and conducted investigations into one of the mounds. His work is now thought to have been the first archaeological investigation in the state of Ohio. In 1788, Benjamin Franklin conjectured that the earthworks may have been built by members of the 1540 Hernando de Soto expedition through southeastern North America.

The next investigations were by Rufus Putnam in 1788 and Reverend Manasseh Cutler in 1789, as they began surveying and founding the modern city of Marietta. Cutler had several trees growing out of the earthworks chopped down so he could count the growth rings; determining that the trees had begun to grow 441 years earlier in approximately 1347. This tree ring data, coupled with the fact that the trees had been preceded by another such round of growth of at least equal age, argued against the de Soto theory and pushed the date for the construction of the earthworks back at 1000 yrs before the 1780s. Given this greater age, others later theorized (also incorrectly) that the mounds had been built by groups as various as the Toltecs from Central America and Scythians from Europe.

Between 1788 and 1796 members of the Ohio Company of Associates made provisions for the mounds to be surveyed and protected, gave them their Latin names, and placed the mounds under the domain of the future mayor of Marietta. This kept the mounds relatively secure for almost a century before the residents of Marietta began dismantling them for various construction projects. In 1801, Mound Cemetery was founded at the Conus mound, preserving it from future destruction. The cemetery is thought to house the graves of more American Revolutionary War officers than any other.

Fort Harmar

Fort Harmar was an early United States frontier military fort, built in 1785 at the confluence of the Ohio and Muskingum rivers. It was built by American troops under the supervision of Captain John Doughty and Captain Jonathan Heart and named for their commanding officer, Colonel Josiah Harmar. The fort was intended for the protection of Indians, i.e., to prevent pioneer squatters from settling in the land to the northwest of the Ohio River. "The position was judiciously chosen, as it commanded not only the mouth of the Muskingum, but swept the waters of the Ohio, from a curve in the river for a considerable distance both above and below the fort."

It is notable as the site for the 1789 Treaty of Fort Harmar between the United States and several Native American tribes.

The presence of Fort Harmar was influential in the founding of Marietta, Ohio in 1788 to the east across the Muskingum.

Siebert Sale 819.
Pierre Antoine Tardieu Biography

Pierre Antoine Tardieu (1784-1869), also known to sign his works as PF Tardieu, was a prolific French map engraver and geographer. The Tardieu family, based in Paris, was well known for their talent in engraving, cartography, and illustration. Pierre Antoine’s father, Antoine Francois Tardieu, was an established cartographer who published numerous atlases. His son is said to have collaborated with him for many years before establishing his own independent career.

Pierre Antoine Tardieu’s most famous work includes engravings of the islands of La Palma and Tenerife, for which in 1818 he was awarded a bronze medal by King Louis-Phillipe for the beauty and accuracy of his mapping. Other famous work includes his mapping of Louisiana and Mexico, engravings of Irish counties, maps of Russia and Asia, and his highly celebrated illustrations of all the provinces of France. He was also the first mapmaker to engrave on steel.

Tardieu was a popular map engraver in his lifetime, enjoying the patronage of the likes of Alexander von Humboldt and respect among his peers. In 1837, he was appointed the title Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur. As was written in his obituary in the Bulletin of the Geographical Society of France, he was renowned for his combination of technical talent and scholarly research skills and praised for furthering his family’s well-respected name in the scientific arts.