Proof state of this large mezzotint of George Caleb Bingham's painting "Martial Law," an artistic protest against the Federal Government's declaration of martial law on the Kansas-Missouri border.
This iconic image shows the evacuation of civilians from their homes by Federal troops required by General Order 11.
On the left side, a local family pleads with the Union soldiers, while wagons are loaded in the background. In the right background, a wagon train of families is shown leaving town. In the right foreground an African American man and boy flee the scene in alarm.
The titled continues: "Dedicated to the Friends of Civil Liberty by the Publishers."
Printed in two sections on either side of the title and lists the text of General Orders No. 11.
Head-Quarters District of the Border, Kansas City, MO. August 25th 1863. I. All persons living in Jackson, Cass and Bates Counties, Missouri, and in that part of Vernon included in this District, except those living within one mile of the limits of Independence, Hickman's Mills, Pleasant Hill and Harrisonville, and except those in that part of Kaw Township, Jackson County, north of Brush Creek and west of the Big Blue, are hereby ordered to remove from their present places of residence within fifteen days from the date hereof. Those who, within that time, establish their loyalty to the satisfaction of the commanding officer of the military station nearest their present places of residence, will receive from him certificates stating the fact of their loyalty and the names of the witnesses by whom it can be shown. All who receive such certificates will be permitted to remove to any military station in this District, or to any part of the State of Kansas except the Counties on the eastern border of the State. All others shall remove out of this district. Officers commanding companies and detachments serving in the counties named, will see that this paragraph is promptly obeyed. II, All grain and hay in the field or under shelter, in the district from which the inhabitants are required to remove, within reach of military stations after the 9th day of September next, not convenient to such stations will be destroyed. III. The provision of general orders No. 10 from these Head-Quarters will be at once vigorously executed by officers commanding in the parts of the District and at the stations not subject to the operations of paragraph I of this order - and especially in the towns of Independence, Westport and Kansas City. IV. Paragraph 3, General Orders No. 10 is revoked as to all who have borne arms against the Government in this District since the 20th day of August, 1863, By order of Brig. General Ewing. H. Hannahs, Adjutant.