Fine example of D'Anville's map of China, perhaps the single most influential map of China published in the 18th Century.
D'Anville's atlas of China is the principal cartographic authority on China during the 18th century. D'Anville used maps prepared by Jesuit missionaries and commissioned by Emporer-Kanyx, who in 1708-1716 ordered a surveying of the country. A copy of these surveys were sent back to Paris and the Royal cartographer D' Anville was commissioned to draw this map, which was the first really reasonably accurate picture of that remote land.
D'Anville's decorative allegorical cartouche shows emperor Kang Hsi presiding over the surveying work undertaken on his orders. Two Jesuit priests, with an armed mounted escort, are investigating a farmer settlement, his lodging and cattle. The scale cartouche is adorned by two wolf hunters.
The map extends west to Thibet and Kashgar, All these areas are now part of modern China, respectively as; Tibet, Xinjiang (whose second largest city is Khashgar), Inner Mongolia, and Manchuria (Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces).
The map is also of significant note as one of the first accurate maps of Korea.
Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon d’Anville (1697-1782) was one of the foremost French geographers of the eighteenth century. He carried out rigorous research in order to create his maps, which greatly developed the technical proficiency of mapmaking during his lifetime. His style was also simpler and less ornate than that of many of his predecessors. It was widely adopted by his contemporaries and successors.
The son of a tailor, d’Anville showed cartographic prowess from a young age; his first map, of Ancient Greece, was published when he was only fifteen years old. By twenty-two, he was appointed as one of the King’s géographes ordinaire de roi. He tutored the young Louis XV while in the service to the Crown. However, royal appointment did not pay all the bills, so d’Anville also did some work for the Portuguese Crown from 1724. For example, he helped to fill out Dom João V’s library with geographical works and made maps showing Portugal’s African colonies.
D’Anville disapproved of merely copying features from other maps, preferring instead to return to the texts upon which those maps were based to make his own depictions. This led him to embrace blank spaces for unknown areas and to reject names which were not supported by other sources. He also amassed a large personal map library and created a network of sources that included Jesuits in China and savants in Brazil. D’Anville’s historical approach to cartography resulted in magnificently detailed, yet modern and academic, maps. For example, his 1743 map of Italy improved upon all previous maps and included a memoir laying out his research and innovations. The geographer also specialized in ancient historical geography.
In 1773, d’Anville was named premier géographe de roi. In 1780, he ceded his considerable library to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to be used for as a reference library for diplomats. D’Anville is best known for several maps, including his map of China, first published in 1735, and then included with Du Halde’s history of that country (the Hague, 1737). His map of Africa (1749) was used well into the nineteenth century.