Fine example of Braun & Hogenberg's second plan of Moscow, first published in 1617.
This decorative and detailed plan of Moscow (Moskva) appeared in volume 6 of Braun & Hogenberg's Civitatus Orbis Theatrum. Because the map first appeared in 1617 (in the final volume of this great work), it is far rarer than Braun & Hogenberg's first plan of Moscow, which was first issued in 1575. /gallery/detail/33973
There are apparently two states of this view. The first state includes a key locating 20 places on the map, with corresponding numbers placed within the map itself. The second state includes 3 lines of text in the map, one to the right of the #18, and two additional lines in the open spaces between the city walls toward the bottom part of the map, noting the "Intima", "Secunda" and "Tertia" parts of the city.
The map is believed to be derived from a Russian survey prepared at the orders of Boris Fyodorovich Godunov (c. 1551-1605), Czar of Muscovy from 1598 onward, and was probably prepared prior to 1630. The original Russian plan has apparently not survived, and Braun & Hogenberg may have used a copy made in 1610 for King Sigismund III of Poland.
The plan shows the old city which surrounds the Kremlin and the Kitai Gorod or Fortified City. The name Kremlin first appeared as Kreml' (or High Town) in an account of the fire in the town in 1331. It was founded in 1147 at the junction of two rivers, the Moskva and the Neglinnaya. As Moscow grew, the Kremlin became the royal, religious and secular heart of the city. Until Czar Peter I transferred his seat of government to his new city of St Petersburg in 1713, it was the capital city. In 1854, beyond the walls of Kitai Gorod, another section grew up which was called Belgorod or White City, named after the death of Czar Ivan the Terrible. This section included a wall which spanned 6 miles and included 28 towers.
Georg Braun (1541-1622) was born and died in Cologne. His primary vocation was as Catholic cleric; he spent thirty-seven years as canon and dean at the church St. Maria ad Gradus, in Cologne. Braun was the chief editor of the Civitates orbis terrarum, the greatest book of town views ever published. His job entailed hiring artists, acquiring source material for the maps and views, and writing the text. In this role, he was assisted by Abraham Ortelius. Braun lived into his 80s, and he was the only member of the original team to witness the publication of the sixth volume in 1617.
Frans Hogenberg (ca. 1540-ca. 1590) was a Flemish and German engraver and mapmaker who also painted. He was born in Mechelen, south of Antwerp, the son of wood engraver and etcher Nicolas Hogenberg. Together with his father, brother (Remigius), uncle, and cousins, Frans was one member of a prominent artistic family in the Netherlands.
During the 1550s, Frans worked in Antwerp with the famous mapmaker Abraham Ortelius. There, he engraved the maps for Ortelius’ groundbreaking first atlas, published in Antwerp in 1570, along with Johannes van Deotecum and Ambrosius and Ferdinand Arsenius. It is suspected he engraved the title page as well. Later, Ortelius supported Hogenberg with information for a different project, the Civitates orbis terrarium (edited by Georg Braun, engraved by Hogenberg, published in six volumes, Cologne, 1572-1617). Hogenberg engraved the majority of the work’s 546 prospects and views.
It is possible that Frans spent some time in England while fleeing from religious persecution, but he was living and working in Cologne by 1580. That is the city where he died around 1590. In addition to his maps, he is known for his historical allegories and portraits. His brother, Remigius, also went on to some fame as an engraver, and he died around the same time as his brother.