First state of this decorative map of the Southwestern US, Texas and Mexico. The cartography of the map and its time period are quite special, coming shortly after the Louisiana Purchase had first been subdivided, such that Louisiana was now distinct from the massive Missouri Territory, which extended from the Mississippi River to the Pacific. A tremendous amount of attention has been given to the rivers and settlements in what would become Arkansas and Indian Territory, including Ft. Fabry, Ft. Miro, Hackerton's Settlement, Post of Arkansa, New Madrid, Fort Jefferson, Ft. Masac, Ft. Luis, Ft. Gelaspy, Ft. Crawford, Bonhomnie Settlement, Fort Pickering, Great Glaize and Old Caddo Village. Two roads leave Nacogdoches, one which leads to San Saba and the other to Santa Fe, leading through many of the early Texas and New Mexican Settlements, which are named and then continuing to Salt Lake. The detail along the Rio Grande as far as Taos is excellent. The detail in the region south of Salt Lake is also noteworthy, with many early settlements and roads, the mythical second Salt Lake and R. Martires shown, along with an apocryphal Rio Colorado, extending nearly to Salt Lake (Timpanagos). Salt Lake is connected to San Francisco Bay by a tentative river, called a Reported Communication. The missions of California are named and linked by a road as far north as San Francisco, a rare feature. A wonderfully early map with unusually good detail.
The Arrowsmiths were a cartographic dynasty which operated from the late-eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth. The family business was founded by Aaron Arrowsmith (1750-1823), who was renowned for carefully prepared and meticulously updated maps, globes, and charts. He created many maps that covered multiple sheets and which were massive in total size. His spare yet exacting style was recognized around the world and mapmakers from other countries, especially the young country of the United States, sought his maps and charts as exemplars for their own work.
Aaron Arrowsmith was born in County Durham in 1750. He came to London for work around 1770, where he found employment as a surveyor for the city’s mapmakers. By 1790, he had set up his own shop which specialized in general charts. Arrowsmith had five premises in his career, most of which were located on or near Soho Square, a neighborhood the led him to rub shoulders with the likes of Joseph Banks, the naturalist, and Matthew Flinders, the hydrographer.
Through his business ties and employment at the Hydrographic Office, Arrowsmith made other important relationships with Alexander Dalrymple, the Hudson’s Bay Company, and others entities. In 1810 he became Hydrographer to the Prince of Wales and, in 1820, Hydrographer to the King.
Aaron Arrowsmith died in 1823, whereby the business and title of Hydrographer to the King passed to his sons, Aaron and Samuel, and, later, his nephew, John. Aaron Jr. (1802-1854) was a founder member of the Royal Geographical Society (RGS) and left the family business in 1832; instead, he enrolled at Oxford to study to become a minister. Samuel (1805-1839) joined Aaron as a partner in the business and they traded together until Aaron left for the ministry. Samuel died at age 34 in 1839; his brother presided over his funeral. The remaining stock and copper plates were bought at auction by John Arrowsmith, their cousin.
John (1790-1873) operated his own independent business after his uncle, Aaron Arrowsmith Sr., died. After 1839, John moved into the Soho premises of his uncle and cousins. John enjoyed considerable recognition in the geography and exploration community. Like Aaron Jr., John was a founder member of the RGS and would serve as its unofficial cartographer for 43 years. Several geographical features in Australia and Canada are named after him. He carried the title Hydrographer to Queen Victoria. He died in 1873 and the majority of his stock was eventually bought by Edward Stanford, who co-founded Stanford’s map shop, which is still open in Covent Garden, London today.