Rare early battle plan showing the English and Dutch Siege of Cadiz in 1625.
The map shows tremendous detail, including the English and Dutch flotilla and the Spanish positions, fortifications and marvelous fine details throughout.
Following an aborted diplomatic mission to Spain in 1624, George Villiers, the Duke of Buckingham, encouraged the King of England to undertake a naval expedition against Spain, in the hopes of establishing Britain as a more prominent naval power in Europe. Enlisting the support of Dutch, an expedition of over 100 ships and 15,000 men set sail for Spain in October 1625, with the intent of intercepting Spanish ships returning from America, then attacking the Spanish coastline, seizing cities and interupting trade.
Led by Sir Edward Cecil, the plan met with multiple problems from the start, including delays due to bad weather and poor provisioning. By the time the expedition reached Cadiz, the expedition was already badly depleted. While the British were successful in seizing the fortified harbor at Fort Puntel, the Spanish were able to defend the fortified City of Cadiz. Cecil allowed his men to rest briefly at the port, but durng the layover, his men found wine vats in the local stores, resulting in widespread drunkenness. Cecil withdrew the expedition and turned homeward, attempting unsuccessfully to attack several vessels returning from America. He returned disgraced, escaping severe punishment only because of his social contacts.