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1860 J. Andriveau-Goujon / Matthew Fontaine Maury
A striking example of Matthew Fontaine Maury's map of the World, based upon Maury's seminal work on the Oceans currents and related atmospheric phenomena, which commenced in 1847, with the publication of his map of the currents of the North Atlantic (Schwartz & Ehrenberg 278) and culminated with The Physical Geography of the Sea, published in 1855.
Maury was the chief Naval Officer in charge of charts from 1843 to 1861. His work describing seasonal winds and currents was conceived largely outside conventional academic circles. Maury was made an honorary member of the Boston Marine Society, where his portrait was hung, and later turned upside down when he later elected to join the Confederacy during the American Civil War.